Appendix: Guide to Historical Spellings and Sounds in New England Algonquian Languages

by Dr. Frank Waabu O'Brien, Aquidneck Indian Council

This short treatise stems from the research of the Massachusett-Narragansett Revival Program, a project for the reconstruction of the extinct American Indian languages of southeastern New England. Our intention is to make these works available to a wide audience. In this paper we summarize the Council’s research into the historical spellings and sounds provided by the 17th and 18th century Colonial missionaries (J. Eliot & J. Cotton [Massachusett language] and R. Williams [Narragansett language]).

As would be expected, the extant Colonial records and documents from this period leave much to be desired from a modern perspective. The data and information are scanty, ambiguous, inconsistent, and prevalent with “noise”. However, the heroic efforts of the Christian missionaries who attempted to translate the Bible, record the vocabulary, grammar and dialogue of a people who spoke a language vastly different from the European Romance tongues, must be respected. And their works are what must be used as significant inputs into any extinct language revival efforts.

Below are presented three charts (A, B, C) which capture the Council’s sense of the issues and problems in using the historical data for modern efforts of rejuvenation, within the limitations already noted. Chart A is introduced as a sobering reminder of the difficulties with regard to ambiguity of the vowel spellings-sounds in Massachusett, as recorded and employed primarily by John Eliot in his Bible translation (1663, 1685, 2ed.). The primary reference for Chart A is Goddard & Bragdon (Part II, “PHONOLOGY AND ORTHOGRAPHY”, pp. 474-486).

Chart B focuses on the Rhode Island language, Narragansett (with several different dialects, including perhaps Coweset, Nipmuck, Pequot, Abenaki according to Ives Goddard, 1981?) as recorded in A Key [1643] by Roger Williams. The Colonial Williams Narragansett language material, in the author’s opinion, comes closest to what can be hoped for in revival because of its Native dialogue-base with word accents (virtually absent in Eliot’s Massachusett Bible). G. Aubin’s (1972) analysis of the Narragansett language revealed a document which is substantially accurate and corresponds to the general proto-Algonquian structure known up to that time. However, only about 2,100 lines of Algonquian, with 2-3 “words” per line, on average, based on about 320 verb roots or stems, are given in A Key (Hagenau, 1962). The Council re-translated A Key in 2001, and provided a brief dictionary of verb stems, nouns &c, based on the works of Hagenau, Aubin, Goddard (1981), Goddard and Bragdon (1988), and miscellaneous other sources.

Chart C is a master table summarizing both Massachusett and Narragansett historical vowels, consonants and blends, including the plethora of confusing diacritical symbols (primarily from J. Cotton, Plymouth Wampanoag).

The author has used Chart C (and Chart B) to produce reconstructed dialogue for a PBS documentary movie[2]. My Maliseet friends from Maliseet Tribe, Tobique Band, New Brunswick, Canada, claim ½ is comprehensible to their fluent speakers of this northern Algonquian language on the Canadian Reserve[3].

Obviously a great deal of effort and many decisions must be made before the sounds of the ancient regional Algonquians once heard in these woods, fields, hills & mountains, and waterways, return to the tongues of those most deprived of the lost of their culture and language over the past three centuries. A full-bodied, limping Pidgin, or adapted living Algonquian language, is most likely hoped for at best[4].

Reference Chart A: Summary of Major Vowel Sounds in Massachusett
(Mainland Dialects)

This table shows: the 6 short & long vowels (u, a, ee, o, oo, ô), how they are written & pronounced, and how Eliot, others spell them. (Other vowel sounds--ī, ū, etc.--are listed in Reference Chart C.)

 

 

Vowels

SHORT u

SHORT a

LONG ee

LONG o

LONG oo

LONG ô

Said in words like

a in sofa

u in cut

ah

[short version]

ee in green

ah

[long version]

oo in moody

a in blanc

[French]

Simplified written character

ah

uh

 

a

ee

ah

oo

ô

â

û

Written by Eliot As

a a   a    
      á    
      â   â
      ai    
      au    
      ah    
e   e      
ee [before ht, hch]   ee, é, ē      
    ea ea    
ei [before ht, hch]   ei (rare)      
i (sometimes)   i      
    ie [rare]      
  o   o o  
      ó    
          ô
      ∞, oo    
u u        
          û


EXAMPLE: the SHORT vowel a (written a & said like short ah) was written by Eliot as either: a, o, u.

1.      Pay careful attention to ambiguity in Eliot’s writing of vowels—a, e, ee, ei, i, u and especially o--same spellings but different sounds.

2.      See REFERENCE CHART C for more information on vowels, consonants, and special symbols (“diacritics”) in Massachusett.

3.      See REFERENCE CHART B for Guide to sounds in Narragansett, derived from G. Aubin’s Ph.D. work at Brown University.

4.      Prof. G. Aubin, in an e-mail exchange, felt this Chart challenged a number of assumptions and conclusions of his rival, Dr. Ives Goddard, Senior Linguist, Smithsonian Institution. The author offers no connotative comments, for the intent of CHART A is   denotative only.

Reference Chart B: Narragansett Pronunciation Guide

SPELLING
(Roger Williams, A Key, 1643)

APPROXIMATE SOUND(S)
(some are uncertain)

a

        uh in sofa

        ou in bought

        ah in father

ah

        ah in father

        ou in bought

an, aum, aun

        nasal sound

au

        ou in bought

        au in caught

        ah in father

aw

        ou in bought

        aw in raw

        ah in father

b

        b in big

        p in pig

c, cc

        k in cow, account

        kw in queen

ca, co,   cu

        k in call, cold, cut

cau

        cow

        caw

ce, ci

 

        s-sound in cede, civil, acid

        z- or sh-sound as in sacrifice, ocean

ch

        ch in chair

ck

        k in cow

        ch in child

        kw in queen

ckq [before w]

        k in cow

        kw in queen

d, dd

        d in din,   muddy

        t in tin, putty

ddt, dt

        d in din

        t in tin

        tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)

e

        e in he

        e in bed

        uh in sofa

        silent [no sound at end of word]

ê

        e in he

ea

        e in he

        ea in yeah

        ah in father

ee

        ee in beet

ei

        e in he

        uh in sofa

emes [word ending]

        ee-mees

ese [word ending]

        ees

eu

        eu in feud

g  [before w]

        k in cow

        kw in queen

        guttural sound like German ach

g, gg, gk[word middle after a vowel]

        k in cow

        kw in queen

        guttural sound like German ach

g, gk[word ending]

        k in cow

        kw in queen

        guttural sound like German ach

i

        uh in sofa

        e in he

        i in hit

ie

        e in he

ih

        uh in sofa

îi

        ee [?]

        ee-uh [?]

        ee-ih [?]

k, kk

        k in cow

        kw in queen

        guttural sound like German ach

k [before consonant]

        kuh in cut

m, mm

        m in mud, hammer

n [before consonant]

        nuh in nut

n, nn [middle, end of word]

        n in tan, tanning

o

        uh in sofa

        ah in father

        oo in food

o [after w]

        ah in father

        ou in bought

        au in caught

oo, ô

        oo in food

oa [after w]

        ah in father

        ou in bought

oh

        uh in sofa

        oh in go [?]

om, on

        nasal sound

p, pp

        b in big, bigger

        p in pig, happy

q [word beginning & before vowel]

        kw in queen

q [before w]

        k in cow

        kw in queen

        guttural sound like German ach

s  [word beginning & after consonant]

        s in sip, racks

s, ss [after vowel ]

        s in sip [one s sound]

sc

        sk in skill

sh [word beginning, word ending & before

       vowel]

        sh in she, push

sh [before consonant]

        s in sip

shk

        sk in skill

shq

        sk in skill

sk

        sk in skill

skc

        sk in skill

        guttural sound like German ach

sp

        sp in spell

sq

        skw in squid

        guttural sound like German ach

t

        d in din

        t in tin

        tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)

tt

        t in tin, putty

        d in din, muddy

        tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)

tch

        tch in itch

te [word beginning ]

        tee-you [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t))

tea, ttea [after a vowel]

        tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)

teau, teu, tteu   [word middle or end]

        tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)

u

        uh in sofa

        ah (short version).

        some think that at the beginning of some words, a u was a “whistling sound” (see w)

w, ww

        y in yes

z

        s in sip

Reference Chart C: Guide to Historical Spellings & Sounds in Narragansett-Massachusett
(Mainland Dialects from Records of 1600s & 1700s)

Stress Marks and Pitch

STRESS (Accent)

Language

á (primary or main stress)

Massachusett & Narragansett

à  (secondary stress)

Historic records seem to omit



PITCH (Tone)

Language

á (high or rising)

Narragansett ?

à (low or falling)

Narragansett

â (rising, then falling)

Narragansett [in Massachusett ^ symbol is  for nasals— â, ô, û]

m’ (pause, hesitation)

Massachusett

Syllable Stress

Stress (or emphasis or accent) typically falls on syllable or syllables marked with special symbols (e.g., wétu stresses first syllable with primary/main stress; ewò stresses second with a low/falling tone; wuskówhàn has main stress & low pitch; aúï stresses aú and ï).

Narragansett is well-stressed, although inconsistently and ambiguously (G. Aubin, 1972). Most Massachusett language words in Eliot seem to have no stress marks. This may indicate either that no special stress on any one syllable exists [e.g., nippe, ask∞k, mehtugq], or it was omitted intentionally for fluent speakers of the language being taught the Bible in their own oral language.

Algonquianist Professor G. Aubin, a respected correspondent of the Aquidneck Indian Council, relates in a personal e-mail communication of 6-25-2002, the possible applicability of the following efficient “Ojibway-like rule” for long/short vowels shown below (cf. Goddard and Bragdon, 1988):

o  All long vowels are stressed
o  All alternate even-numbered short vowels are stressed

This rules presupposes the existence of correct vowel classification which has not been achieved for the extinct American Indian languages Massachusett-Narragansett. Consequently, accent and “pronunciation” in this extinct American Indian language group is largely intuitive; it is also based significantly on imitating the sounds from “similar” existing Algonquian languages such as Maliseet-Passamaquoddy which are documented in the theoretical and educational literature (see Goddard, 1996; and personal communication, G. Aubin, 2002). This limitation was made painfully evident from the author’s experience as Linguist during the making of the PBS documentary movie, Mystic Voices: The Story of the Pequot War.

Partial List of Historic Spellings & Sounds

SPELLING

(from John Eliot and others)

 

APPROXIMATE SOUND(S)

(Some are uncertain)

 

a [as in wadchu (“wachuw”)]

a in sofa (or) ah [short or long version]

aa [as in waantam∞onk]

long ah [sometimes aa   written as aá]

á [as in násh (“nosh”)]

long ah

ā [as in wàwāmek]

a in ale or á

à [as in pà]

a in abet

â [as in nâmaus]

a in French word blanc (â is a nasal sound) (or, perhaps) ah [long version]

a in knave (nasalized). Rarely seen.

u in put

ä [as in peäsik]

a in arm (or) cat (rarely seen)

ae [word middle or ending]

e in he (or) a in am (or) cat

áe [word middle or ending as in agkomáe (“akomôee”)]

 

ah-ee (long ah)

ag [as in tannag (“tanok”)]

ak as in clock

ah [word ending]

long ah

ai [as in naish (“nosh”)]

long ah (or) ai in mail

aih [as in nuppaih (“nupoh”)]

ah [long version]

am, an, ám, án [after consonant as in sampwe (“sôpwee”)]

 

a in French blanc (nasal sound)

ash [word ending for plurals as in hassenash]

 

arsh in harsh (silent r)

ass [word ending for some plurals, Narragansett]

 

ahs

au [as in hennau (“henôw”)]

Long ah (or) ow (or) ou in bought or ca in caught

aû [as in aûke (“ahkee”), Narr.]

long ah [a rising-falling pitch]

aú, áu [as in nesáusuk (“neesôsuk”)]

nasal sound ô as a in French blanc

aü [as in ]

ah-ou (ü is oo in boot)

b, bp [word middle after vowel as in kobhog (“kophak”)]

b or p in big (or) pig (a sound between b / p)

b, bp [word ending]

b or p in big (or) pig (a sound between b / p)

ca, co, cu

k-sound like call, cold, cut

cau

cow (or) caw (see kau)

ce, ci

 

        s-sound in cede, civil, acid

        sometimes z-   or sh-sound as in sacrifice, ocean

 

ch [word beginning and after h]

ch in chair

ch [word middle & word ending after vowel]

 

ch in much, etching

cha [word beginning]

cha in cha-cha

cha, che, chi [word middle & ending, as in sâchem (“sôteum”)]

 

tee-you [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)

 

che, chee

chee in cheese

chu [word middle following vowel or word ending as in wechu (“weeteuw”)]

 

tee-you [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t). chu is rarely seen with this sound as a word ending; see next entry for more common sound with this word ending.

chu [word ending   as in wadchu

(“wachuw”)   & meechu

(“meechuw”)]

 

chew

ckq [word middle as in Narr., muckquétu (“mukweeteuw”)]

 

qu as in queen (see kq)

dch, dtch [word middle & word ending after vowel]

ch in much, etching

dj

ch in match (rare)

dt, d [word middle after vowel]

t in tin (or) d in din (a d-t sound)  [d may be silent in some words like wadchu (“wachuw”)]

 

dt, d [word ending as in kod (“kat”)]

t in tin (or) d in din (a d-t sound)

dtea [after a vowel]

tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)

dti

tee-you [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)

e [word beginning or middle as in kesukun (“keesukun”)]

 

e in he (or) a in sofa (or) e in bed (Narr.)

e [word ending  as in wuske (“wuskee”) or seipe (“seep”)]

e in he [usually for adjectives & adverbs; a final e in some Roger Williams & Cotton words is probably silent and tells us that the preceeding vowel is a long sound; e.g. cummúmuckquete (“kumumukweet”)] (see ese for another example)

 

ē

e in he

ee

ee as in green (or, before ht & hch) a in sofa

é [as in wétu (“weeteuw”)]

e in he

è [as in mètah]

e in end, bed

ê [Narr., as in pennêtunck] (“pehnêtunck”)]

 

Roger Williams says ^  is “long sounding Accent” (e in he)

 

ë

a in tame (ë rarely seen)

ea [as in sekeneam (“seekuniam”)]

e in he (or) long ah (or) e in bed (Narr.) (or) ea in yeah (Narr.)

ei [as in keihtoh (“kuhtah”)]

a in sofa [before ht, hch] (or) i in hit (or, rarely) ee in heed

emes [word ending  for diminutive as in mehtugquemes  (“muhtukweemees”)]

 

eemees

es [word ending for diminutive as in mehtugques (“muhtukwees”)]

 

ees

ese [word ending for Narr. diminutive, as in squáese (“skwahees”)]

 

ees [final e in ese probably silent & means preceeding vowel is “long”; see e (word ending)]

et [word ending , “locative” as in pautuxet]

et in set

eu [as in ayeu (“ayuw”)]

eu in feud

êuck [word ending as in Narr., Massachusêuck]

 

e in he + ook in hook (or) e + yuck

f

not used

g, gg, gk [word middle after a vowel as in agkomáe (“akomôee”)]

 

k in cow [perhaps a guttural sound]; one g heard in gg.

g, gk [word   ending as in mehtug (“muhtukw”)  & tannag (“tanok”)]

k in cow [perhaps a guttural sound] (or)  qu in queen

gh

k in cow (or) ge in age

ghk

k in cow (or) qu in queen

gi, ji

gi in giant

gq [word   ending as in mehtugq (“muhtukw”) ]

 

qu in queen

gw , gqu [word  middle between vowels as in mehtugquash (“muhtukwash”) ]

 

qu in queen

h, hh

h in hot (one h heard)

h’ [word beginning as in h’tugk]

h in hot (a pause or breathing sound after h)

hch, ch

ch in chair

hk [word middle as in kishke

(“keeskee”) ]

k in cow

hsh

sh in shoe

ht

ht in height

hw, hwh

wh in what

i [word middle as in quinni (“kwinee”)]

 

a in sofa (or) e in he (or) i in hit

i [word ending as in m∞i (“moowee”) ]

 

e in he

í [as in sickíssuog]

i in hit (or) a in sofa

ī

i in ice

ì [ as in nechìppog]

i in ill

ï [as in aúï]

e in he (or) i in pin (ï   rarely seen)

ie

e in he [rare]

îi

·        ee [?](Narr.)

·        ee-uh [?]   (Narr.)

·        ee-ih [?](Narr.)

 

is, ish [word middle as in kishke (“keeskee”)]

 

ees [ see entry for sh &   shk]

ish [word ending as in anish (“ahnish”)]

 

ish as in dish

is [word ending as in mokkis (“mahkus”)]

 

us

it, ut [word ending, “locative”]

it or ut in put

j

ch in match (or) gi in giant (rare)

ji

gi in giant

jt [word middle after vowel as in quajtog (“kwochtak”)]

 

ch in etching

k [word beginning &   after consonant]

 

k in cow

k, kk [word middle after vowel as in mokkis (“mahkus”)]

 

k in cow (one k heard) [perhaps a guttural sound]

k [word ending as in ahtuk (“ahtukw”)]

qu in queen (or) k in cow

k’ [word beginning as in k’chi]

2nd k in kick (make a pause or breathing sound after k)

kau

cow (or) caw (see cau)

ke

kee in keep (or) kuh

kē, kee

kee in keep

kh

ck in back? [perhaps a guttural sound]

ki

kee in keep (or) ki in kick

ko

ka in karate (or) co in coop

kq [before   consonant & word ending]

qu in queen [see ckq]

kqu [word   middle between vowels as in nukqutchtamup (“nukwuchtamup”)]

 

qu in queen [see ckq]

kuh, keh [as in keht∞nog (“kuhtoonakw”)]

kuh

l

el (rarely seen in southeastern New England dialects)

m, mm

m in mud (or) hammer (one m heard)

m’ [word beginning as in m’tugk]

meh or muh (a pause or breathing sound after m)

n [ beginning  of word]

n in no

nn [ beginning  of word as in nnin,

         (“nuh-nihn”)]

      

nuh-nih (two n sounds)

n, nn [middle, end of word]

n in tan (one n sound)

o [as in kod (“kat”)]

ah [short or long version] (or) oo in food

oa

oa in soap (or) oak (or) broad

oo [as in   askook]

oo in food

oooo, ∞∞

first oo or ∞ spoken; said as oo in food

ó [as in wómpi (“wampee”) & anóme (“anôme”)]

 

ah [long version] (or, rarely) o in old

ō

o in old

ô [as in woskétomp (“waskeetôp”)]

a in French word blanc (nasal sound)

o in no [as a nasal sound?] Very rare.

ock [word middle or ending, Narr.]

ak in clock

og [word middle or ending]

ak in clock

oh [as in ohke (“ahkee”)]

ah [short or long version] (or) nasal sound ôh [after n]

òh [as in pòhqui]

a in sofa

oi

oi in oil

ôi

nasal a in blanc + e in he

om, on [nasal sound as in woskétomp(“waskeetôp”)]

 

a in French word blanc (nasal sound)

onk [word ending, abstract nouns as in meetsuonk]

 

onck (or) unck

Times;letter-spacing:-2.0pt'>oo            [as in askook (“ahskook”)]

oo in food [Eliot’s special (digraph) symbol for double oo; the   same as ∞ (or) 8]

 

[as in mutt∞n (“mutoon”)]

oo in food (modern symbol for oo ;    8 also used for oo)

∞∞, oo oo

first ∞ or oo                   spoken; said as oo in food

∞   [as in sohsum∞onk]

oo in boot

oo in foot

ou

ou in out

∞w [word beginning]

whee (“whistling sound” which Eliot couldn’t explain]

p, pp [word middle after vowel]

p or b in pig (or) big (a sound between p / b). One p heard

 

p [word ending]

p or b in pig (or) big (a sound between p / b)

ps [word beginning  or middle as in psuk]

pss ( rare) as in collapse

pu, puh [as in appu (“apuw”)]

pu in put

q [before consonant & word ending]

qu in queen

qu [word beginning & after consonant]

qu in queen

qu [word middle between vowels]

qu in queen

qua [as in quadjtog (“kwochtak”)]

quo in quota (or) qua in quality

quâ

quo in Pequot

que [as in ahque (“ahkwee”)]

que in queen (or) quest

qui

que in queen (or) qui in quick

quie [as in wishquie (“weeskwayee”)]

kwayee

quo [as in ahquompi (“ahkwahmpee”)]

quah

qun [as in qunutug (“kwunutukw”)]

kwun

coo (like dove-sound)

qut

kwut

r

are (rarely used in southeastern New England dialects)

s [word beginning & after consonant]

s in sip

s, ss [after vowel as in nusseet (“nuseet”)]

 

s in sip (one s sound)

sh [before   vowel & word ending as in mukquoshim (“mukwahshum”)]

 

sh in shoe, she, ship

sh [before consonant as in kishke  (“keeskee”) ]

s in sip

shau [as in petshau (“peetshow”)]

show in rain-shower

shk [before   vowel as in kishke  (“keeskee”) ]

 

sk in Alaska, skill

sq [as in mosq (“mahskw”)]

squah in squat

suck [word ending, for plurals in Narragansett]

 

sook

t [word beginning  & after consonant as in taûbot]

 

t in tin (or) d in din (a d-t sound)

t, tt [word middle after vowel as in nuttah (“nutah”)]

 

t in tin (or) d in din (a d-t sound) [one t heard]

 

t, tt [word end as in moskeht]

tee-you [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)

tch [word middle & word ending after   vowel]

 

ch in etching (or) tch in watch

te [word beginning as in teag (“teokw”)]

tee-you [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t))

tea, ttea [after a vowel]

tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)

teau, teu, tteu [word middle or end as in keteau (“keeteow”)]

 

tee-you [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)

to, tó, tô [as in attóau (“atôow”)]

to in top [a nasal sound]

tu, ttu [word middle or end as in wétu (“weeteuw”), pittu (puteow”)]

 

tee-you [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)

Other sounds like ti, tti, tj   have the tee-you sound plus additional sounds

toh [as in kehtoh (“kuhtah”)]

tah

u [as in wuttup (“wutup”)]

a in sofa (or) ah (short version). Some think that at the beginning of some words, a u was a “whistling sound” (see w)

ú [as in aúï ]

u in rude (or) a in sofa

ū

u in rude, tune

ù [as in wonkqùssis]

u in circus, up?

û

a in blanc (or) u in mud? (nasal sound)

ü [as in aü]

u in upsilon (or) oo in boot (ü   rarely seen) ?

uck, uk [word ending  as in pasuk (“posukw”)]

 

uhck , oock; k is qu sound as in queen for some

ut, it [word ending, “locative” as in kehtompskut]

 

ut in put (or) it

uw [word beginning]

a w “whistling sound”

v

not used

w, ww

w in won (one w heard)   [perhaps a “whistling sound” in some words beginning with w]

 

wh

wh in what

wi

why (or) wee

wu [as in wuttup (“wutup”)]

wah (or) woo (or) wuh

x

ex in exit (rarely seen)

y

y in yes

y in lyre (in Eliot, others ?)

y in typical (or) fully

yau

yaw

yeu [as in ayeu (“ayuw”)]

you

yo

yah (or) yo in yo-yo

yah (or) yo in yo-yo

yo in yo-yo

z, zs [as in nukkezheomp (“nukeeshiôp”)]

s in sip



Note: The above spellings are selected from the works of John Eliot & Josiah Cotton (Massachusett— Natick, and Plymouth dialects), Roger Williams (Narragansett) & J. H. Trumbull (1903 dictionary of Eliot’s Bible and Cotton, Williams). The Nantucket & Martha’s Vineyard “island dialects” are not included. The infinity symbol ∞ and numeral 8 are seen in modern writings to stand for Eliot’s special (digraph) character oo . There is a great deal of uncertainty in our knowledge about the actual speech sounds and patterns of the Algonquian-speaking full-blooded Indians of southeastern New England (Rhode Island, Massachusetts & parts of Conn.). For additional information on these matters of phonology, consult the works by Goddard (1981), Goddard & Bragdon (1988), and other references cited in those sources. The author’s highly deficient Massachusett Language Book exemplifies additional spelling-sound hypothetical reconstructions, based on LeSourds’ paper, which, in turn, is based on the works of summa Algonquianist Ives Goddard.

[2] The author’s linguistic written and recorded materials of the reconstructed Indian-dialogue translations are being processed for donation to the Rhode Island Historical Society, University of Rhode Island’s Special Collections Department and other repositories.

[3] I thank my good friend and Nétop Edward _____ for his extensive help in teaching me basic Algonquian pronunciation.

[4] The most ambitious and current regional revitalization program is among the Wampanoag tribes, Gay Head (Aquinnah) & Mashpee Tribe, for the Massachusett or Wampanaog (Wôpanâak) Language.   The Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation is also rebuilding their lost language, as are the neighboring Mohegan Tribal Nation.   See References for tribal website addresses.

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