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Goldeneagle's Vocabulary [archive]

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Goldeneagle's Nanticoke Vocabulary

Note From Native Languages of the Americas: This language appears to us to be Lenape (Unami) Delaware, not Nanticoke. However, since the original author of the page identified the words as Nanticoke, we are reprinting this vocabulary with its original title. The Nanticoke language was about as closely related to Lenape as Spanish is to Italian, so the wordlist may still be of interest to Nanticoke people even if the tribal origin is actually Lenape.

“G”

gahès
= my mother (NTD)
gahètët = my aunt (NTD)
gahèti = aunt (voc.) (NTD)
gata = I want (NTD)
gata kànjihëla = I want to use the restroom (NTD)
gata lapèmkwësi = I want to be useful (NTD)
gatungòm = I am sleepy (NTD)
gatupwi = I am hungry (NTD)
gatusëmwi = I am thirsty (NTD)
gësi = I am hot (NTD)
gëtëmaktunhe = I talk humbly (NTD)
gwèxsi = I am apprehensive (NTD)
gwis = my son (NTD)
gwitët = son (voc.) (NTD)

“H”

hàch = ‘question marker’ (NTD)
hàch, hèch = QUESTION part
hàkhàkopëlìsh
= a pear (NTD)
hàkhàkòpëlish = pear n: hàkhàkopëlìshakw = pear tree
hàkhàkw = bottle (NTD)
hatapi = bow (to shoot with) (NTD)
hàtëmòpil = automobile n
hatës
= sinew (NTD)
= Hello! (or) Hi! (CL & NTD)
= hello part
hèch, hàch
= QUESTION part
hèmpës
= dress (or) shirt; pl: hèmpsà = dresses (or) shirts (CL)
hèmpës = dress, shirt (< Dutch) n inan: pl hèmpsa;
lënuwì hèmpsës; lënuwahèmpës
= a man’s shirt
hèmpsikàon = tent (lit. cloth house) n
hënil-
= to kill vt anim: hnil = kill him (imper sing), nihëla
 (< n-nëhil-a-w) = I killed him, wënhilëla = he killed him
hìkpète = it boiled dry (NTD)
hilusës = old man; pl: hilusësàk = old men (CL)
hilùsës = old man n anim: pl hilusësàk
hinutët
= Wren (NTD)
hipaha = exclamation used when having a really good time (NTD)
hìtukw = (< hitëkw) tree n anim: pl hìtkuk (< hitëkw-àk)
-hm = EMPTY MORPHEME suf: nëmitsìhëna (< n-mitsi-hm-na)
 we are eating; këmitsìhëmo (< k-mitsi-hm-wa) you (pl)
are eating; required between stems and plural suffixes in the
AI paradigm and TA direct paradigm, always subject to phonological modification
hmukw = blood (NTD)
hmukw = blood n: këmùkëm = your blood; mùkëm = his blood;
hmukwìnaw, hmukwìnën = cardinal bird (lit. bloody one)
hmukwinùnd = Cardinal (NTD)
hmuwingwës = blackberry (NTD)
hmuwìnkwës = blackberry n anim: pl hmuwìnkwsàk;
 hmuwinkwsì pay
= blackberry pie
hnakay = myself (NTD)
hòpèxkw = worm n anim: pl hopèxkok
hopënis
= potato; pl: hopënisàk = potatoes (CL)
hòpënis = 1: potato; 2: testicle n anim: pl hopënìsàk
hòtëmil
= oatmeal n
hòkès
= bark of tree n: hòkèsikàon = bark house
hùkòn = pot-hook (NTD)
hukwèyunk = high part
hunt
= supposedly part: àhpu hunt skìxkwe = supposedly there
was a girl (used esp. in narratives to let listeners know the speaker
 did not actually witness the events described)
hus = bucket (NTD)
hus = bucket n anim: pl hùsàk; mpi hus = water bucket
hwìkat = leg (NTD)

“M”

machi-
= go home vi: màchi (imper sg); machìtàm = Let’s go
home; machiàne = when I go home; machiàne = when you go
home; ntëluwe màchi = I said: go home; ntëlùkw màchi = he told me: go home;
na mochinèyo = then they went home ( < w-machi-ne-waw)
machi = Go home!; machikw = You all go home!; machitàm = Let’s go home (CL)
mah = here take it (CL)
mah- = to take something vb: mah = take it (imper sg)
mah = PAST part: wèski mah pe = he came a while ago
mah! shè wàn = Here! Here he is (CL)
mahchi- = bad vi: mahchìkwi = it’s bad, it’s no good; mahchinàkwsu = he looks bad
mahchikpi = paw-paw (a fruit) (NTD)
mahchìkpi = 1: paw-paw; 2: banana n: mahchìkpiakw = paw-paw tree, banana tree
mahchikwi = it is no good (CL)
mahchipukòt = it tastes bad (CL)
mahëlàm- = to buy vt: nëmàhëlàmën =
I (will) buy it; nëmahëlào nehënaònkès = I bought a horse
mahtëtunhe = he/she talks bad, is complaining or fussing (CL)
malàxkwsit = bean; pl malàxkwsita = beans (CL & NTD)
malàxkwsit = bean n inan: pl malàxkwsìta; malàxkwsìtke = he is dancing the bean dance
mamal- = striped vi: mamàle = it is striped; mamàlsu = he is striped
mamèthakemu = Dove (the bird) (NTD)
manitu = make (or) construct (CL)
manunksi- = to be angry vi: nëmanùnksi = I am angry
màshku = Creek (Indian) n anim: pl màshkùòk
màstël
= mustard (greens or condiment) (NTD)
mata chich neyo = I don’t see him/her any more (CL)
màxke = it is red in color; màxksu = he/she is red in color (CL & NTD)
màxk- = red vi: màxke = it is red; màxksu = he, she is red; màxksit =
one who is red; màxkahsën = brick (lit: red stone); màxkahsënikàon =
brick house; màxkchùlëns = cardinal (lit: red bird)
màxkchëphìk = beet n (red beet)
màxkw = bear n anim: pl màxkòk
màxkw
= bear (CL & NTD)
may = to start up, go to do something pre v:
 may ntùnëm mehëmìchink
= he went looking for food
mayawtunhe = he/she is talking sensible (CL)
mayày, mayày ta = indeed, very much so part: mayày kshëlànde = it’s a very hot day
mayay ta = very much so (CL)
mèchi = now, ready part
mehëmìchink
= food n inan: may ntùnëm mehëmìchink
= he went looking for food
mëhw- = to eat vt anim: nëmùhò àpëlìsh = I ate an apple ( < n-mëhw-a-w);
 na mòhòn = then he ate him (e.g., a rabbit) (< w-mëhw-a-n(e)) : SEE ALSO mits-, michi-
mèkis
= sheep n anim
mëlëk
= Blue Goose (NTD)
mëlì = pus n
mèli këlëshmësh
= Merry Christmas (CL)
mëlingweahpòn = corn-in-the-milk-stage bread (NTD)
mëlingwèm = corn-in-the-milk-stage corn (NTD)
mëlukwehun = pillow; pl mëlukwehuna = pillows (CL)
mèmhalàmunt = storekeeper, merchant, trader n anim
mèmhalamuntikàon
= shop, store, trading post n inam: pl mèmhalamuntikàona
mëne-
= to drink vi: nëmënè = I am drinking;
kèku hèch kàta mënè = what do you want to drink?
mënihi = Give me a drink! (NTD)
mènkwe = Seneca n: anim: pl menkwèyok
mënùkòn
= a rainbow (NTD)
mënùtès = bag, billfold, purse, handbag n
mësa
= older sister (voc.) (NTD)
mësakw = log (or) beam; pl mësako = logs (or) beams (CL)
mëshake = Sit down! (on the ground) (NTD)
mèxèlkàtas = centipede n inan: pl mèxèlkàtasa
mexkalaniyat
= Red-Tailed Hawk (NTD)
mèxkeyàksit = Indian n anim: pl mexkeyoksìchik (lit: red one) : awènhàke
michëwakàn
= food (CL)
michi- = to eat vt usu inan: michìtàm ahpòn =
let’s eat bread; mìchu salàpòn = he, she is eating frybread;
na mwichinèyo = then they ate it ( < w-michi-ne-waw) : SEE ALSO mitsi-, mëhw-
mikwën
= feather (NTD)
mìkwën = feather n anim: pl mìkwënàk
mikum-
= to remind vt: këmikùmi = you reminded me
mil në- - - (inan.) = give him/her the - - - (CL)
mil = give him (NTD)
mil- = to give (to someone) vt: mìli = give me (imper sg);
 mìli mòni = give me money; mil = give him, her (imper sg);

 këmìlël = I give you; nëmìla = I give him; këmìli = you give me; këmìla = you give him
mili = give me; milinèn = give us (CL & NTD)
mili në- - - (inan.) = give me the - - - (CL)
mimëns = child; pl mimënsàk = children (CL & NTD)
mìmëns = child n anim: pl minëmsàk; mimëntët = baby pl: mimëntëtàk
mimëntët
= baby; pl mimëntëtàk = babies (CL & NTD)
min = currant n inan
mingahseamàlsi
= you feel better (NTD)
-mis = older sister, including female cousins older than the
 speaker n anim: nëmìs = my older sister; këmìs = your older
 sister; mwìsa = his, her older sister; nëmìsëna = our (1 pl) older
 sister; këmìsëna = our (2 + 1) older sister; këmìsëwa =
your (pl) older sister; mwisëwòo = their older sister
mitkëm = pole (NTD)
mitkòk = corn cob (NTD)
mitsi- = to eat vi: mìtsi (imper sg); mitsìti = eat, little one
 (imper sg); mitsìtàm = let’s eat; nëmìsi = I eat, am eating :SEE ALSO michi-, mëhw-
mitsi
= Eat!; mitsikw = You all eat! (or) you people eat; mitsitàm = Let’s eat! (CL & NTD)
mixpuwe = down feather (NTD)
mòchipwis = vulture, buzzard (NTD)
mòni = money n: nulhàtu mòni = I have (some) money; ku nulhatù mòni
 = I have no money, I don’t have any money
mònkis = monkey n anim: monkis-inàkwsu =
he looks like a monkey; monkis-imàkwsu = he smells like a monkey
monsi = Munsee (NTD)
mpalsi = I am sick (CL)
mpëntàm = I hear (or) understand (something) (CL)
mpi = water (CL)
mpi = water n inan: mpi hus = water bucket
mpiànàxkwim = waterlily rood, roots n
mpisum
= medicine (CL)
mpùl = bull n anim: mpùlxëm = bulldog
munhake = woodchuck; groundhog (NTD)
munskw- = to mow vi: mùnskwe = he is cutting grass, he is mowing hay
mus = elk (CL)
mus = elk n anim: musixèkën = elk hair
mushhakòt = the sky is clear (NTD)
muwihële = Prairie Chicken (NTD)
mùxul = canoe, boat (NTD)
muxwès = insect (NTD)
mùxwès = insect n anim
muxumsa
= grandfather (voc.), great-uncle (voc.) (NTD)
mwekane = dog; pl mwekaneyok = dogs (CL)
mwèkane = dog n anim: pl mwekanèyok; mwekanètët =
puppy pl mwekanètëtàk; mwekaneinàkwsu =
he looks like a dog; mwekaneimàkwsu = he smells like a dog
mwìmim = wild cherry n: mwimënshi = wild cherry tree

“N”

n- =
I (FIRST PERSON) pre: nëmìtsi = I am eating
na - - - (ani.) = that - - - (CL)
na = that (anim) (NTD)
-na (n) = PLURALIZER FOR FIRST PERSON suf: mitsìhëna =
 we (excl) are eating; këmilawënànàk = we (incl) give (it) to them
na = then part: na wënèyòn tahkoxa = then he saw a turtle; na
yùkwe xahèli wiyùs nulhatùhëna
= now we have lots of meat (lit: the now)
na = that, the det, anim: na tëme kahtùpu = the wolf was hungry: SEE ALSO nàn
nahënëm
= racoon (CL)
nàhënëm = racoon n anim: nahënëmkan = racoon dance; nahënëmka =
I am dancing the racoon dance; nahënëmke =
she is dancing the racoon dance; nahënëmkàhëna =
we dance the raccoon dance; nahënëmkatìhëna = we dance the raccoon dance together
nal = go get him/her (CL)
nal- = get (someone) vt: nal = go get him, her (imper)
nalhùtin = go-get-‘em dance n: lit: going after each other
nàmès = fish (CL & NTD)
nàmès = fish n anim: pl nàmèsàk
nàn
= that one (animate) (NTD)
nàn = that pron, anim: awèn hèch nàn = who is that? : SEE ALSO na
naol-
(< nawal-) = follow vt: naòla = follow him (imper); naòli = follow me (imper)
nat- = get (something) vt: nàti = go get it (imper); natëmài =
 go get it for me (imper); nàti mpi = go get water
nati = go get it (CL)
natuna- = to hunt (for something) vt: natunàok = I hunt them
nàtunëm- = to look for (something) v: nàtùnëmën =
I look for it; may ntùnëm mehëmìchink = he went to look for food
naxa = three (CL & NTD)
naxà = three part: naxà chëmàmsàk = three rabbits
-naxans = older brother, also any male cousin older than the speaker n anim: naxàns
 = my older brother, cousin; xònsa = his older brother, cousin (< w-axans-a)
naxans = my older brother (NTD)
naxisëmës = my younger brother; my younger sister (NTD)
-naxìsëmës = younger sibling including cousin of either sex
 younger than the speaker n anim: naxìsëmës = my younger sibling, cousin; knaxìsëmës
= your younger sibling, cousin
naxapxki = three hundred (CL)
naxk = hand n inan: naxk = my hand (< n-naxk), knaxk =
 your hand; noxk = his hand (< w-naxk)
naxkilëla- = to stop vi: naxkilëlàtàm = lets stop
nchu = my friend (man to man) (CL)
= that, the det, inan: në wìkëwam = the house
- - - (inan.) = that - - - (CL)
= that (inan.); nèki = those (anim.); nèl = those (inan.) (NTD)
nehënaonkès = horse; pl nehënaonkèsàk = horses (CL)
nehënaònkès = horse n anim: pl nehënaonkèsàk; nehënaonkètët
 = colt; nehënaonkèsinàkwsu = he looks like a horse; nehënaonkèsimàkwsu =
 he smells like a horse;
nehënaonkèsitàkwsu = he sounds like a horse
neìnxke = forty part
nek, nèki
= these, those det/pron, anim: nèk awènik =
those people; nèki chulënsàk = those birds; awèn hèch nèk = who are those?
nèka = he, she (THIRD PERSON) pron: nèka mìsu =
he (or she) is eating (presence of pronoun emphasizes the
grammatical subject, which is an obligatory part of the verb)
nekào, nèkàmò = they (THIRD PERSON PLURAL) pron: nèkàmò mitsùwàk =
they are eating (presence of pronoun emphasizes the grammatical subject,
 which is an obligatory part of the verb)
nèl = these, those det/pron, inan: nèl ahsëna =
 these stones; kèku hèch nèl = what are those?
nem- = to see vt inam: nèmën = I see it; nèmëna = I see those
nëmaxkamën = I found it; nëmaxkao = I found him/her (CL)
nëmis = my older sister (NTD)
nëmuxumës = my grandfather; my great-uncle (NTD)
nën = that pron, inan: kèku hèch nën = what is that?
neòpxki = four hundred (CL)
nëpe = yes, let’s (lit: me too) part
nèpe
= me too (CL)
new- = to see vt anim: nèyo = I see him/her; nèyukw = he/she sees me; nèwkuk
= they see me; knèwël = I see you; xu làpi knèwël = I’ll see you again
nèwa = four part: nèwën = four times
newa = four (CL & NTD)
newa këlak = it is four o’clock (CL)
nëwikwihëla = I am tired (NTD)
nèwiyal = New Year (CL)
nèwiyal = New Year (< English) n inan
neyo
= I see him/her; neyook =
I see them; neyùkw = he/she saw me (CL & NTD)
ni = I (FIRST PERSON) pron: ni nëmìtsi =
 I am eating (presence of pronoun emphasizes the grammatical subject,
which is an obligatory part of the verb)
ni (or) n- = I (or) my (CL & NTD)
-nichan = child, daughter, niece n anim: nìchan =
 my daughter, niece; knìchan = your child, daughter
nichan = my daughter; my child; nichantët = daughter (voc.) (NTD)
nichus = my friend (woman speaking of woman) (NTD)
nilùna = we (SPEAKER AND OTHER) pro: nilùna nëmitsìhëna = we (excl)
are eating (presence of pronoun emphasizes the grammatical subject,
which is an obligatory part of the verb)
nima- = to take a lunch or provisions vi: nìma = I take a lunch, provisions; knìma hèch =
 did you take a lunch, provisions?
ninkëminakw- = to look cute vi: ninkëminàlwsu = he, she looks cute
nìpën = summer n: nipënì = in the summer; nìshi nìpëne = two summers ago
nipën = Summer (CL)
nìpënës = gnat n anim
nisha
= two (CL & NTD)
nìsha = two part: nìshën = two times, twice; nìsha xkwèyok = two women; nishàpxki
= two hundred; nishkàhëna = we danced together, we danced two together; nishuxwèhëna
= we two walked together
nishapxki = two hundred (CL)
nishash = seven (CL & NTD)
nìshash = seven part: nìshash txën = seven times; nìshash txìnxke = seventy part
nishinxke
= twenty (CL & NTD)
nishìnxke = twenty part
nisk-
= to be dirty vi: nìske = it is dirty; niskinàkwsu = he/she looks dirty; niskhìlus
= a dirty old man; nisktùnhe = he is talking dirty
niskëlan = it is drizzling rain (CL & NTD)
nitis = my friend (used only by a man speaking of his male friend) (NTD)
nkàski alënixsi = I can speak Lenape (CL)
nkata- - - = I want to- - - (do something) (CL)
nkata kawi = I want to sleep (CL)
nkata utènink a = I want to go to town (CL)
nkatala- - - (ani.) = I want him/her- - - (CL)
nkatatàmën = I want that (or) it (CL)
nkati kawi = I almost fell asleep (CL)
nkatunkòm = I am sleepy (CL)
nkatupwi = I am hungry (CL)
nkatusëmwi = I am thirsty (CL)
nkësi = I am hot (CL)
nkishëwësi = I am warm (CL)
nkispwi = I am full (CL)
nkwëchi = I tried (CL)
nlëmatahpi = I sat down (CL)
nonin = I forgot (CL)
nshielìntàm = I am sad (CL)
nshilìntàm = I am married (CL)
nta = I go, I went (or) I am going (CL)
ntàch = I will go (CL)
ntakohchi = I am cold (CL)
ntèpipwi = I have eaten enough (CL)
ntiasi- graze vi: ntiàsu = he (an animal) grazes (< nëtiasi-w)
nuchchëmamëse- = to hunt rabbits vi: nuchchëmàmsèch = I will go rabbit hunting
nuchkwe- = to be of no use v: nùchkwe = it’s no use; nuchkwèha
 = I killed him for nothing; nuchkwèma =
 I blamed him for something he didn’t do; knuchkwewtùnhe =
 you talk nonsense; nuchkwewtùnhe = he talks nonsense
ntunaw = look for him/her; ntunëm = look for it (CL)
nuhàm = my grandmother; my great-aunt; nuhëma = grandmother; great-aunt (voc.) (NTD)
nulamàlsi = I am fine (CL & NTD)
nulanake = I made a bed (or) I fixed a place to sleep (CL)
nulelìntàm = I am glad (CL)
nulhàn- = to be lazy vi: nùlhàn = I am lazy; nulhàntuwamàlsi
= I feel lazy; nulhàntuwàkàn = laziness; nulhàntës = lazy one pl: nulhànsak, nulhàntàk
nulhànt
= I feel lazy (CL)
nulhatènami = I am happy (CL)
nunakàn = milk (CL)
nunakàn = milk; a woman’s breast (NTD)
nusamëluli = I ate too much (CL)
nutxanikwe- = to hunt squirrels vi: pilàychëch nutxanikwe
 = a boy went squirrel hunting
nuwaha = I know him/her; nuwatun = I know it (CL)
nuwi = Come here!; nuwi, këntkatàm = Come! Let’s dance; nuwikw =
You all come here!; nuwiti = Come here little one! (CL)
nuwi = Come here! (mostly used for children) (NTD)
nuwi- = come here (used with children) vi: nùwi, nùwi ta (imper), nuwìti
= come here, little one
nux = my father (NTD)
nuxa = father (voc.) (NTD)
nuxati = Father Dear (speaking to) (or) Dear Father (CL & NTD)
nuxtët = my uncle (father’s brother) (NTD)
nuxwis = my grandchild (boy or girl), my grand-nephew; my grand-niece (NTD)
nuxwisxàm = my child’s pet (NTD)
nuxwiti = grandchild; grand-nephew; grand-niece (voc.) (NTD)

“O”

òhshixay
= nest (NTD)
òhundàm = Great-Horned Owl (NTD)
òk = and (CL & NTD)
òk = and conj: (between verbs): kahtùpu òk may ntùnëm mehëmìchink
= he was hungry and he went to look for food: (between nouns): èmhònës òk opënchùtët
= a spoon and a little white dish
òkche- = to have a crooked shape vi: òkche = it has a crooked shape
òkèksëne = he/she is not wearing any socks (CL)
òkhatim = mulberry, mulberries (NTD)
òkhàtim = mulberry, mulberries n: òkhatimënshi = mulberry tree
òkwës = fox (CL & NTD)
òkwës = fox n anim: pl òlwsàk
ònkum
= shake hands with him/her; ònkum na pilaechëch
 = shake hands with that boy; ònkumi = shake my hand (CL)
ònkum- = to shake hands vt: ònkùmi
( – with me, imper); ònkum ( – with him/her, imper)
òl = egg; òla = eggs (NTD)
òòl = egg; pl òòla = eggs (CL)
òòl = egg n inan: pl òòla
òngùndëwakàn
= a blessing (NTD)
òp-, op- = white vi: òpe = it is white; òpsu =he, she is white; òpèk
 = that which is white; opèke = those which are white; òpìnkwe =
he has a white face; òpikàon = a white house; òpkàte =
he has a white leg; òhòpkàte = he has white legs; òpchàle = he has a white nose
òpalanie = bald eagle (CL & NTD)
opanu = Iroquois (NTD)
òpe = it is white in color; òpsu = he/she is white in color (CL)
òpsko = corn shucks (NTD)
òpàskw = corn husk n inan: pl òpsko
òpsuwihële
= domestic goose
òpsuwìhële = goose n anim: pl òpsuwihëlèyok
òske-
= to be thin vi inan: òskèe = it is thin: SEE ALSO aluki-
òsòmi
= certainly (CL)
òtaès = flower (NTD)
owiyalahsu = whirlwind (NTD)
òxe = it is light (such as daylight, not used for weight) (NTD

“P”

paènt
= cup; pl: paènta = cups (CL)
pahsì = half part
pàhkakwënèt
= moose (flat horn) (CL)
pàhkàkwënèt, pàhkàkënèt = moose n anim
pahkàntahikàn
= drum stick (CL)
pahkàsun = marrow (NTD)
pahsùkwi = Stand up! (from sitting); pahsùkwikw = You all stand up! (CL & NTD)
pahsukwi- = to stand up from sitting position vi: pahsùkwi (imper sg); pahsùkwik (imper pl)
pàk- = to be flat vi: it is flat; pàkchal = a flat nose; pàkchàle = he has a flat nose
pàkawënikàn = dumpling; pl: pàkawënikàna = dumplings (CL & NTD)
pàkaonìkàna = dumplings n inan: tipàsii pàkawënikàna = chicken dumplings
pàke = it is flat (CL)
pàkim = cranberry n
pakim
= cranberry, cranberries (NTD)
palenàxk = five (CL & NTD)
palènàxk = five part: palènàxk txën = five times; palènàxk lënuwàk = five men
palènàxk txìnxke = fifty part
palenàxk txapxki
= five hundred (CL)
palia = Go Away! (NTD)
palsu = he/she is sick (CL)
pan’kuk = pancake (NTD)
pànkuk = pancake (< Dutch) n inan: pl: pankùka
panshpèkw
= cantaloupe, muskmelon (NTD)
pànshpèkw = cantaloupe n
papaxès
= Red-Headed Woodpecker (NTD)
pasahpòn = bread, yeast bread (or) bun (CL & NTD)
pàxkëlan = it is briefly stopped raining (CL)
= give it here! (CL)
pè- = to hand something over vi: = give it here (imper sg)
pè- = to wait vt: npèha = I wait for him, npètun = I wait for it; npèhùkw
= he waits for me; npèhàok = I wait for them; npèhkuk = they wait for me
= he comes, he arrives (NTD)
pèhëw- = to wait vi: pèhëwe na lënu = the man is waiting
pè hàch awèn = Is someone coming? (CL)
pèhpastèk = rice (CL & NTD)
pèhpàstèk = rice n
pëlanshëman
= French (CL)
pëlànshëman = Frenchman ( < English) n anim; pl: pëlanshëmànàk
pële
= Turkey clan (CL)
pëlëchis = pants (CL)
pëlëchis = pants, trousers n
pëlènikw
= flying squirrel n anim: pl: pëlènìkok
pëmhwi
= he takes a dust bath (speaking of birds) (NTD)
pëmi = lard, grease (of any type) (NTD)
pëmì = grease n inan
pëmska-
= to walk vi: npëmska = I walk, am walking; kpëmska =
you walk; pëmëske = he, she walks; (< pëmëska-w); npëmskàhëna = we walk; pëmëskèyok = they walk
pëna- = to look vt anim: pënà = look (imper); pënài =
 look at me (imper); pënòw = look at him, her (imper)
pënam- = to look vt inam: npënamën = I look at it
pëchi- = enter, go in vi: pënchi = get in (imper sg)
 (e.g., something with a small opening such as a cave or teepee)
pënji = he enters something through a small opening (such as a cave or tipi) (NTD)
pèpël = pepper (CL & NTD)
pèpël = pepper n
pèpètëlan
= it is raining now and then (CL)
pèphòksing = popcorn (NTD)
pëphòkwe = Ruffed Grouse (NTD)
pèshkunk = nine (CL)
pèshkunk = nine part: pèshkunk txën = nine times
pèshkunk txìnxke = ninety part
pèshkung
= nine (NTD)
pèthakhòn = it is thundering (NTD)
pèthakhùwe = mythological Thunder Being n anim: pl: pethakhuwèyok
phwit = Oh, Phooey! (CL)
p’hwit = phooey part: _expression indicating the
 speaker does not think much of what someone has said
piitàkw = step-mother (NTD)
pikàkës = Peafowl (NTD)
pil- = to be clean (physically or ceremonially) vi: npìlsi =
 I am clean; pìlsu = he is clean; pìlët = it is clean; pilinàkwsu = he, she looks clean
pilaechëch = boy; pl: pilaechëchàk =
 boys (CL & NTD); pilaychështët = little boy (NTD)
pilàychëch = boy n anim: pl: pilaychëchàk; pilaychi (voc)
pilkësh = peach (NTD)
pìlkësh = peach n: pilkëshakw = peach tree
pime- = to be crooked vi: pìme = it is crooked
pisim = sweet corn (NTD)
pishkw = Nighthawk (Bullbat) (NTD)
pipisilùnkòn = bat n anim: pisilùnkòn
pisilùnkòn
= bat n anim: pipisilùnkòn
piskèke
= tonight part: piskèke xu nkàwi =
I will sleep tonight; piskèke ku nkawì = I won’t sleep tonight
pitaòksën = overshoe; pl: pitaòksëna = overshoes (CL)
pitaopòn = pie (NTD)
pitukëna = milkweed (edible);pl: pitukènaok = milkweeds (CL & NTD)
pitùkëna = milkweed n anim: pl: pitukënàok
pòkhilus
= broken down old man (CL); extremely old and disabled man (NTD)
pòkhìlus = a feeble old man n anim
pòkxawësh
= extremely old and disabled woman (NTD)
pòm = ham, thigh (CL & NTD)
pùhëm, pùhwëm = white-flour corn n
puhënëma
= he/she is drumming (CL)
puhënikàn = drum (CL)
pùhënik- = to drum vi: puhënìke =
he drums; n: puhënìkàn = a drum; pèpuhënìkès = drummer
puhwèm = white flour corn (NTD)
pùkuwànku = Turtle Clan (CL)
pukwès = mouse (NTD)
pùkwès = rat n anim: pl: pukwèsàk; pukwètët
 = mouse pl: pukwètëtàk (lit: little rat)
puni- = to leave along vt: punìtu = leave it alone; punìhi =
 leave me alone; punìw = leave him, her alone; punìmi = quit talking about me
punkw = dust (or) ashes (CL)
pùnkwës = mosquito n anim
pupukwësh
= Bobwhite; Quail (NTD)
push = scat (to scare a cat) (CL)
push = scat part: _expression used to chase a cat away
pushis = cat; pl: pushisàk = cats (CL & NTD)
pùshis = cat n anim: pl: pushìsàk; pushìtët = kitten; pl: pushitëtàk
pusi-
= get in (a vehicle) v: pùsi (imper sg); pùsikw (imper pl)
putël = butter (CL & NTD)
pùtël = butter n
putëlëpèxing
= cream (NTD)
puxò = exclamation when smelling something bad (NTD)
puxò tamwe = exclamation when smelling something very bad (NTD)
pxashikàn = dried meat (NTD)
pxisktèahpòn = bean bread n inan
pxiskteyo
= skinned corn (NTD)

“X”

xah-
= to be ugly vi: xahinàkwsu = he, she looks ugly
xahèli = much, a lot part: xahèli wiyùs nulhatùhëna = we have a lot of meat
xalahpùtis = spider n anim: pl: xalahputìsàk
xalahputis
= spider (CL)
xàm- = to feed (someone) vt: xàm = feed him (imper); xàmi =
feed me (imper sg); xàmikw = feed me (imper pl)
xami = Feed me!; xamikw = You all feed me! (CL & NTD)
xanikw = squirrel; pl: xanikok = squirrels (CL & NTD)
xànikw = squirrel n anim: pl: xanìkok; xanikwì kshìtay = squirrel soup
xansa = older brother (voc.) (NTD)
xansun (or) kèhkawink = bed (CL)
xànsun = bed n inan: pl: xansùna; xansùnink = on the bed
xaphùkwe = mole n anim: pl: xaphukwèyok
xash
= eight (CL & NTD)
xash = eight part: xash txën = eight times
xash txìnxke = eighty part
xàskwim
= corn n
xàskwim
= corn (CL & NTD)
xawshisës = old woman (NTD)
xawshìsës = old woman n anim
xawskwe-
= to be grassy, grass covered vi: xawskwèe = it is grassy
xaxakw = Sycamore tree (NTD)
xëlèti- = to be greedy vi: xëlètie = he is greedy
xès = skin, hide n anim: pl: xèsàk
xìmin
= persimmon n inan: pl: ximìna; ximinùnshi = persimmon tree
ximin = persimmon (NTD)
xinkw- = big, large (usually of a singular object) vi: xìnkwe =
it is big; xìnkwsu = he is big; xinkwsùwàk =
they are big; xinkwinàkwsu = he, she looks big; xìnkwi chìkënëm =
a big turkey; xìnkwi chëmàmsàk =
big rabbits; xinkòlëpay = buck deer : amànk- (of plural objects)
xinkwchëmàmës = jack rabbit n anim: pl: xinkwchëmàmsàk
xinkwëlëpay
= buck deer (CL)
xìnxke = thirty part
xitkw-
= to be deep vi: xìtkwe = it is deep
xkàn = bone n inan: pl: xkàna; òpxkàn = white bone
xkànàkhàkw = gourd n
xkànësàk
= lamb’s quarter (edible plant, used in plural form) n anim
xkuk
= snake (CL)
xkuk = snake n anim: pl: xkùkàk
xkwe
= woman; pl: xkweyok = women (CL & NTD)
xkwe = woman n anim: pl: xkwëyok (< xkwew-àk); xkwewì hèmpës =
a woman’s dress; xkwèxëm = female animal; xkwèhële = female fowl
xkwechëch = girl; pl: xkwechëchàk = girls (CL & NTD); xkwechështët = little girl (NTD)
xkwehële = female bird (NTD)
xkwën = liver (NTD)
xu = will, FUTURE part: xu nëwìxëni yu kèku = I will cook this thing
xu = ‘future marker’ (used to show the future tense, like “shall” or “will” in English) (NTD)
xu làpi knewël = I will see you again (CL)
xunìti = soon, pretty soon part
xuniti
= pretty soon (or) little while (CL)
xùw- = to be old vi: xùwe = it is old; xùwsu =
 he is old; xùwi awèn = an old person; kikèxëm = an old animal

“Y”

yoh (or) yuh = alright (or) okay (CL)
yu = this, the det inan: she yu wëski kèku = here (is) this new thing
yu- - - (inan.) = this - - - (CL)
yu = this (inan.) (NTD)
yu tàli = here, this place part: yu tàli = this place; shè yu = here it is
yuki = these (anim.) (NTD)
yuli = these (inan.) (NTD)
yuh (or) yoh = alright (or) okay (CL)
yuh = 1: all right, okay part 2: you’re welcome (usual reply to wanëshi - thank you) part
yuh
= Yes! (reply to a question or statement which can be answered
by English ‘okay’ or ‘alright’) (NTD)
yuhël- = get away vi: yùhëli (imper sg); yùhëlikw (imper pl)
yuho = Yes! (emphatic “yuh”) (NTD)
yukwe = now (CL & NTD)
yùkwe = now part: yùkwe ènta alàpàèkw =
now on this morning; ku kahtupwì yùkwe =
now he is not hungry ( < katupw-i-wi); na yùkwe xahèli wiyùs nulhatùhëna =
 now we have lots of meat (lit: then now)
yushè = here part: yushè ènta xkwithakamìka = here on this earth

“Z”

zhimwi = I flee (NTD)
zhis = my uncle (used only for mother’s brother) (NTD)
zit = my foot (NTD)
zùkwis = my mother-in-law (NTD)



--written 01-14-2003 by Goldeneagle, Nanticoke

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 The Nanticoke
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