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Around 1000 CE the Míkmaq people united as a nation to fight off the invading Kanien'kehá:ka
(Mohawk tribe). The Míkmaq created a new federal-type government called the Míkmawey Mawiómi to represent the nation, now the largest nation in the east. The structure of this government started at the local community level.
Mawiómi wjit Kisikúkw
The Gathering of Elders consisted of all the elders, clan mothers, and men of the Wikamow (Clan). All members of the council had an equal voice, and were given a chance to share their views around the circle. The council would handle the local affairs of the communities of the clan. The head of the council was the Saya, who was usually hereditary, or chosen by the people.
Mawiómi wjit Sayas
The Gathering of Local Leaders included all of the Sayas in the Sakamowit (District). This council handled the affairs of the District, including allocating hunting zones and village location. The council had the authority to enter their district in to war. One Míkmaq district could enter a war without the other Míkmaq districts joining. The head of the council was the Sakamow, who was either hereditary or appointed by the Sayas.
The Míkmaq Gathering consisted of the Sakamow's from each of the original 7 Districts. The head of this council was the Kjisakamow, who was either hereditary or appointed by the Sakamow's. The Kjisakamow was the head of the government. A higher position was the Kjisaqmaw, the head of the nation. This council handled national and international affairs.
The Míkmawey Mawiómi can be compared to today's modern governments. The Kjisaqmaw was like a President, the Head of State. The Kjisakamow was like a Prime Minister, the Head of Government. A Sakamow was like a Governor of a Province.