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The Dine are located in the Southwest (Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas). Ten sub-tribes make up the Dine nation, including the Aravaipa Apache, Chiricahua Apache, Cibecue Apache, Jicarilla Apache, Kiowa Apache, Lipan Apache, Mescalero Apache, Tonto Apache, Western Apache and White Mountain Apache.
Their native language is Athapascan.
The Dine people actually call themselves the Dine meaning "The People," but other nations have called them Apache (pronounciation: ah-patch-ee), which is Zuni for “enemy”.
The late fifteen hundreds was to be both a pivotal time and a turning point in Dine history. New intruders, with new technology and new fighting tactics were going to push their way North into Dine territories. These intruders would take the form of the Spanish. The presence of the Spanish would serve to increase their ferocity as warriors and became a factor in the Dine displacement from their main living and food sources.
With the Spanish, came the horse, increasing the Dine's ability to roam for food. They also had increased ability to raid settlements and defend their territory in a swift and unsuspecting manner. The arrival of the Spanish also signified the beginning of a continuous state of war and displacement for almost 300 years. First by the Spanish, then buy the U.S. Government, who assumed control over New Mexico in 1848. In 1872 (after increased pressure from both the Mexican and U.S. military to suppress the Apaches) Dine chief, Cochise, signed a treaty with the U.S. Government. This treaty would place the Dine on an Arizona reservation leaving only small bands of Dine raiders to defend their territory. The Dine people were moved three more times to Florida, Alabama, and the Oklahoma territory. They are fittingly recognized as the last Indian nation to be placed on a reservation.
Dutton, Bertha. Indians of the American Southwest. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975.
Terell, John. Apache Chronicle, The Story of the People. New York: The World Publishing Company. 1972.