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Native American Facts For Kids was written for young people learning about the Atsugewi tribe for school or home-schooling reports. We encourage students
and teachers to visit our main Atsugewi
website for in-depth information
about the tribe, but here are our answers to the questions we are most often asked by children, with
Atsugewi pictures and links we believe are suitable for all ages.
How do you pronounce the word "Atsugewi"? What does it mean?
Atsugewi is pronounced "ah-tsoo-geh-wee." That means "pine tree people" in their own language. "Atsugewi" was originally just the
name of one particular community, but in modern times, it has come to refer to the whole tribe.
Sometimes the Atsugewi are also known as the Pit River Indians. Pit River is the English name of the most important river in
Where do the Atsugewis live?
The Atsugewis are original people of northeastern California. Most Atsugewi people still live there today.
How is the Atsugewi Indian nation organized?
The Atsugewi share a tribal goverment with their historical allies the
Achumawi. This shared nation is called the Pit River Tribe. The Pit River
tribe is a coalition of nine Achumawi bands and two Atsugewi bands.
Most Atsugewi people live on six rancherias located within the Pit River tribe.
A rancheria is a tribal village or other small parcel of land that California Indians have partial control over.
Not all Atsugewi people today live on the Pit River rancherias, however. Some live in intertribal communities with members of
other tribes, such as the Round Valley Reservation. Others live in Northern California towns.
In the past, each Atsugewi village was led by a chief. Atsugewi chiefs were usually medicine men, not war leaders, and they did not
exert as much power as the rulers of many other cultures.
Today, each Atsugewi rancheria is governed by a tribal council elected by its residents.
In the past there was no central government among the Atsugewi bands, but today the Pit River Tribe
has a main governing council made up of representatives sent by all eleven of its member bands.
What language do the Atsugewis speak?
The Atsugewi speak English today. In the past, they spoke their native Atsugewi language.
Some Atsugewi elders still remember words from this language, and there are younger people who are interested in learning
to speak their traditional language again. If you'd like to know some Atsugewi words,
here is a Atsugewi picture glossary you can look at.
What was Atsugewi culture like in the past? What is it like now?
Here's a link to the Pit River Tribe's homepage.
On their site you can find information about the Atsugewi people and their customs in the past and today.
How do Atsugewi Indian children live? What games and toys do the Atsugewis have?
They do the same things any children do--play with each other, go to school and help around the house.
Many Atsugewi children like to go hunting and fishing with their fathers. In the past, Indian kids had more
chores and less time to play, just like colonial children. But they did have toys and games.
One Atsugewi game was the hand game.
Players held marked sticks behind their backs and gambled as they guessed the location of each stick.
Another Atsugewi game was shinny, which is an athletic sport similar to lacrosse and rugby.
Both men and women played forms of shinny. Atsugewi girls often played with
Like many California Indians, Atsugewi mothers traditionally carried their babies in
What were Atsugewi homes like in the past?
The Atsugewis lived in earthen houses. Usually these houses were made from a cone-shaped frame of wooden poles placed over a
basement-like hole dug into the ground. Then the frame would be covered with bark and packed with a mound
of earth over it to keep it well insulated. Because they were partially underground, Atsugewi houses appeared
smaller than they really were.
Here are some pictures of different types of Indian housing.
Today, most Atsugewi live in modern houses and apartments, just like you.
What was Atsugewi clothing like? Did they wear feather headdresses and face paint?
In the summer, Atsugewi people didn't wear much clothing-- only short skirts made of tule fiber.
When the weather became cooler, though, Atsugewi women preferred to wear long deerskin dresses, and the men wore leggings
and deerskin shirts. The Atsugewis wore sandals or moccasins
on their feet. Here are some photos and links about the clothes of Native Americans
The Atsugewis didn't wear long headdresses like the
Sioux. Atsugewi women wore woven
The Atsugewis didn't usually paint their faces, but they did wear
Women tattooed lines on their chins, while men tattooed their arms.
Atsugewi women sometimes wore beaded necklaces, and Atsugewi men wore shell jewelry in their pierced ears and noses.
Today, some Atsugewi people still wear moccasins or beaded jewelry, but they wear modern clothes like jeans instead of grass skirts.
What was Atsugewi transportation like in the days before cars? Did they paddle canoes?
Yes--the Atsugewi tribe made dugout canoes by hollowing out pine logs. They used these canoes
to travel and fish on the rivers. Here is a website with pictures of
Canoeing is still popular among California Indians, though few people carve a canoe by hand anymore.
Today, of course, Atsugewi people also use cars... and non-native people also use canoes.
What was Atsugewi food like in the days before supermarkets?
The Atsugewis were fishing people. Atsugewi men used nets and fish traps to catch many different types of fish in the rivers and
lakes. They also hunted deer, particularly by driving them into pit traps. These hunting pits may have been the source of the
English name "Pit River." Atsugewi women gathered acorns and ground them into meal, as well as collecting berries and roots.
Here is a website with more information
about American Indian food.
What were Atsugewi weapons and tools like in the past?
Atsugewi hunters used bows and arrows. Atsugewi fishermen used nets and basket fish traps. The Achumawi didn't go to war very often, but
they used their bows to defend their villages from raids by other tribes.
Here is an illustrated list of Indian weapons for you to look at.
What are Atsugewi arts and crafts like?
Atsugewi artists are known for their fine basketweaving.
Here is a picture of a beautiful
What other Native Americans did the Atsugewi tribe interact with?
The Achumawi tribe has always been the closest ally of the Atsugewis.
These tribes often got together for feasts and ceremonies, and sometimes intermarried.
Other nearby tribes who were important trading partners to the Atsugewis were the
The Atsugewi people were not very fond of the Modocs,
who were powerful warriors and sometimes raided Atsugewi villages.
What kinds of stories do the Atsugewis tell?
There are lots of traditional Atsugewi legends and fairy tales. Storytelling is very important to the
Atsugewi Indian culture. Here is a story about the origin of flint.
Here's a website where you can read more about Atsugewi myths.
What about Atsugewi religion?
Religions are too complicated and culturally sensitive to describe appropriately
in only a few simple sentences, and we strongly want to avoid misleading anybody. You can visit this site to learn more about
the traditional Atsugewi worldview,
or this site about Native American religious traditions in general.
Can you recommend a good book for me to read?
If you want to know more about Achumawi culture and history,
one interesting source for kids is Atsugewi Tribe.
Older readers may enjoy
The Morning The Sun Went Down, an oral history by a
Pit River author. Two good books for kids on California Indians in general
are California Native Peoples
and Native Ways;
a more in-depth book for older readers is Tribes of California.
You can also browse through our recommendations of Indian books in general.
How do I cite your website in my bibliography?
You will need to ask your teacher for the format he or she wants you to use. The authors' names are Laura Redish and
Orrin Lewis and the title of our site is Native Languages of the Americas. We are a nonprofit educational organization
working to preserve and protect Native American languages and culture. You can learn more about our organization
here. Our website was first created in 1998 and last updated in
Thanks for your interest in the Atsugewi Indian people and their language!
Learn More About The Atsugewi Tribe
Atsugewi Indian Tribe
An overview of the Atsugewi tribe, their language and history.
Atsugewi Language Resources
Atsugewi Indian language samples, articles, and indexed links.
Atsugewi Culture and History Directory
Related links about the Atsugewi Native Americans past and present.
Atsugewi Indian vocabulary lists.
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